Wiara lub niewiara polskich naukowców w Boga a ich poglądy na relację między nauką a religią

Andrzej Gołąb

Abstract


Belief and unbelief in God among Polish scholars and their views on the relationship between science and religion

The paper presents selected results of a study on the religious views of 279 Polish scholars with a doctoral or higher degree. The percentage of scholars who declared belief in God was 56.3%. The four groups with the highest indices were chemists (80%), geographers and Earth scientists (76.2%), mathematicians and information technology specialists (73.1%), and medical scientists (64.5%). A small proportion of respondents (6.5%) chose the following option: “I don’t believe in a personal God but I believe in a higher power of some kind.” The percentages of atheists and agnostics were 18.3% and 7.2%, respectively. The subjects’ views on the relationship between science and religion were categorized according to the Barbour’s typology (Barbour, 1990). The largest proportion of the subjects (41.9%) denied the inevitability of conflict between science and religion; 13% held the opposite view. Some scholars (19.6%) expressed the view that science and religion should be treated as independent areas of inquiry. The relationship of dialog seemed to be the best form of their coexistence to 2% respondents, while 3.6% were in favor of the cooperation of science and religion in building a comprehensive worldview.


Keywords


Polish scholars; worldview; belief in God; science–religion relationship

Full Text:

PDF (Język Polski)

References


Anglin, S. M. (2015). On the nature of implicit soul beliefs: When the past weighs more than the present. British Journal of Social Psychology, 54, 394-404.

Barbour, I. G. (1990). Religion in an age of science. San Francisco: Harper & Row. Retrieved from http://media.sabda.org/alkitab-2/Religion-Online.org%20Books/Barbour,%20Ian%20-%20Re ligion%20in%20an%20Age%20of%20Science.pdf

Boguszewski, R. (2012). Zmiany w zakresie wiary i religijności Polaków po śmierci Jana Pawła II [Changes in the faith and and religiosity of Poles after John Paul II’s death]. Report BS/49/2012. Warsaw, PL: Center for Public Opinion Research (CBOS).

Cybulska, A. (2013). Prestiż zawodów [The prestige of professions]. Report BS/164/2013. Warsaw, PL: Center for Public Opinion Research (CBOS).

Dennett, D., & Plantinga, A. (2010/2014). Science and religion: Are they compatible? New York: Oxford University Press.

Ecklund, E. H., & Park, J. Z. (2009). Conflict between religion and science among academic scientists? Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 48(2), 276-292.

Ecklund, E. H., Park, J. Z., & Sorrell, K. L. (2011). Scientists negotiate boundaries between religion and science. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 50, 552-569.

Ecklund, E. H., & Scheitle C. P. (2007). Religion among academic scientists: Distinctions, disciplines, and demographics. Social Problems, 54, 289-307.

Erenc, J. (2010). Religijność i tolerancja. Stosunek do wiary pracowników naukowych Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego [Religiosity and tolerance: Attitude towards faith among the research staff of the University of Gdańsk]. Przegląd Religioznawczy, 3, 121-143.

Gołąb, A. (2014). Poglądy wierzących i niewierzących naukowców na to, jakie cechy przypisuje Bogu większość Polaków [The views of believing and unbelieving scholars on what characteristics most Poles attribute to God]. Annales Universitatis Paedagogicae Cracoviensis. Studia Sociologica, 6(1), 144-162.

Gould, A. J. (1997). Nonoverlapping magisteria. Natural History, 106, 16-22. Retrieved from: http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phys3000/phys3000_fa11/StevenJGoulldNOMA.pdf

Gross, N., & Simmons, S. (2009). The religiosity of American college and university professors. Sociology of Religion, 70(2), 101-129.

Gutowski, P. (2014). Józefa Życińskiego koncepcja relacji między religią a nauką [Józef Życiński’s conception of the relationship between religion and science]. Retrieved from: http://ekai.pl/ analiza/x75261/jozefa-zycinskiego-koncepcja-relacji-miedzy-religia-a-nauka/

IMAS International (2006). W co wierzymy? [What do we believe in?]. Wrocław: IMAS International Polska. Retrieved from: http://www.imas.pl/files/raporty/IMAS-Wierzenia2006.pdf

John Paul II (1998). Fides et ratio. Encyclical Letter of the Supreme Pontiff John Paul II to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on the relationship between faith and reason. Vatican: Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved from: http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/ency clicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_14091998_fides-et-ratio.html

Larson, J. E., & Witham, L. (1997). Scientists are still keeping the faith. Nature, 386, 435-436.

Larson, J. E., & Witham, L. (1998). Leading scientists still reject God. Nature, 394, 313-314.

Leuba, J. H. (1916). The belief in God and immortality. A psychological, anthropological and statistical study. Boston: Sherman, French & Company. Retrieved from: http://darrow.law. umn.edu/documents/Leuba_Belief_in_God_Complete.pdf

Libiszowska-Żółtkowska, M. (2000). Wiara uczonych. Esej mocno osadzony w empirii [Scholars’ faith: An essay firmly grounded in empirical evidence]. Cracow, PL: Zakład Wydawniczy Nomos.

Masci, D. (2009). Religion and science in the United States. Scientists and belief. Retrieved from: http://www.pewforum.org/2009/11/05/scientists-and-belief/

Ragan, C., Malony, H. N., & Beit-Hallahmi, B. (1980). Psychologists and religion: Professional factors and personal belief. Review of Religious Research, 21(2), 208-217. Retrieved from: http://hiebertglobalcenter.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Reading-9-Ragan-and-Malon y-Psychologists-and-Religion.pdf

Riekki, T., Lindeman, M., & Lipsanen, J. (2013). Conceptions about the mind-body problem and their relations to afterlife beliefs, paranormal beliefs, religiosity, and ontological confusions. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 9(3), 112-120.

Shalev, B. A. (2003). 100 years of Nobel Prizes. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers and Distributors.

Skinner, B. F. (1987). What religion means to me. Free Inquiry, 7(2), 12-14. Retrieved from: http://www.scientificmindfulness.com/2010/03/skinner-on-religion.html

Stark, R., Iannaccone, L. R., & Finke, R. (1996). Religion, science and rationality. American Economic Review, 86(2), 433-437.

Witwicki, L. (1939). La foi des éclairés. Paris: Librairie Félix Alcan. Bibliothèque de philosophie contemporaine.

Witwicki, W. (1959). Wiara oświeconych [Faith of the enlightened]. Warsaw, PL: Wydawnictwo Naukowe.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18290/rpsych.2017.20.1-3pl

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Roczniki Psychologiczne/Annals of Psychology

ISSN: 1507-7888   e-ISSN: 2451-4306


© Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL & Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II – Wydział Nauk Społecznych


Articles are licensed under a Creative Commons  Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)