Burnout syndrome in male and female gestalt and cognitive-behavioral psychotherapists

Marcin Rzeszutek


The objective of this article is to investigate gender differences in the level of professional burnout among male and female Gestalt and cognitive-behavioral psychotherapists according to the length of professional experience as a covariate. The study was conducted on 200 participants: 100 Gestalt psychotherapists and 100 cognitive-behavioral psychotherapists. The results show a positive relationship between the length of professional experience and the level of burnout in the whole group of psychotherapists. Additionally, it has been shown that the level of burnout in the male psychotherapists’ group was significantly higher than the intensity of symptoms in the female group. The difference in the intensity of burnout symptoms between the Gestalt therapists and cognitive behavioral therapists was not statistically significant. 


burnout syndrome; gender; Gestalt psychotherapy; cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy

Full Text:



Ackerley, G. D., Burnell, J., Holder, D., & Kurdek, L. A. (1988). Burnout among licensed psychologists. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 19(6), 624-631.

Aftab, N., Shah, A., & Mehmood, R. (2012). Relationship of self efficacy and burnout among physicians. Academic Research International, 2, 539-548.

Baka, Ł., & Cieślak, R. (2010). Zależności między stresorami w pracy a wypaleniem zawodowym i zaangażowaniem w pracę w grupie nauczycieli: Pośrednicząca rola przekonań o własnej skuteczności i wsparcia społecznego. Studia Psychologiczne, 48(3), 5-18.

Benbow, S., & Jolley, D. (2002). Burnout and stress amongst old age psychiatrists. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17, 710-714.

Benecke, C. (2012). Burnout – Wer gewinnt mit dieser Diagnose? Lecture during Lindaurer Psychotherapiewochen: “Alles Burnout – oder was?”. Lindau, Germany, 22-27 April, 2012.

Brouwers, A., Evers, W., & Tomic, W. (2001). Self-efficacy in eliciting social support and burnout among secondary-school teachers. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31(7), 1474-1491.

Butler A. C., Chapman J. E., Forman E. M., & Beck A. T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(1), 17-31.

Demerouti E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). The job demands-resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 499-512.

Emery, S., Tracey, D., & McLean, S. (2009). Associations among therapist beliefs, personal resources and burnout in clinical psychologists. Behaviour Change, 26(2), 83-96.

Farber, B. A., & Heifetz, L. J. (1982). The process and dimensions of burnout in psychotherapists. Professional Psychology, 13(2), 293-301.

Figley C. R. (2002). Compassion fatigue: Psychotherapists’ chronic lack of self care. Psychotherapy in Practice, 58(11), 1433-1441.

Gelso, C. J., & Carter, J. A. (1985). The relationship in counseling and psychotherapy: Components, consequences and theoretical antecedents. The Counseling Psychologist, 13, 155-243.

Gelso, C. J., & Hayes, J. A. (1998). The psychotherapy relationship: Theory, research and practice. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Gilbert, P., & Leahy, R. (2007). The therapeutic relationship in the cognitive behavioral psychotherapies. London, UK: Sage Publications.

Halbesleben, J. R. B., & Demerouti, E. (2013). The construct validity of an alternative measure of burnout: Investigating the English translation of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory. Work & Stress: An International Journal of Work, Health & Organisations, 19, 208-220.

Houston, G. (2003). Brief Gestalt Therapy. London, UK: Sage Publications.

Lee, J., Lim, N., Yang, E., & Lee, S. (2011). Antecedents and consequences of three dimensions of burnout in psychotherapists: A meta-analysis. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 42(3), 252-258.

Lim, N., Kyoung, E., Hyunjung, K., Yang, E., & Lee, S. (2010). Individual and work-related factors influencing burnout of mental health professionals: a meta-analysis. Journal of Employment Counseling, 47, 86-96.

Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 2, 99-113.

Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1985). The role of sex and family variables in burnout. Sex Roles, 12, 837-851.

Maslach, C., Jackson, S. E., & Leiter, M. P. (1996). Maslach burnout inventory manual (3rd ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Maslach, C. (2001). What have we learned about burnout and health? Psychology & Health, 16, 607-611.

McKewn, J. (2004). Developing Gestalt counselling. London, UK: SAGE Publications.

Nelson, T. D. (2003). Psychologia uprzedzeń. Gdańsk, GWP.

Patsiopoulos, A. T., & Buchanan, M. (2011). The practice of self-compassion in counseling: A narrative inquiry. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 42(4), 301-307.

Perseius, K., Kaver, A., Ekdahl, S., Asberg, M., & Samuelson, M. (2007). Stress and burnout in psychiatric professionals when starting to use dialectical behavioral therapy in the work with young self-harming women showing borderline personality symptoms. Journal of Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing, 14(7), 635-643.

Purvanova, R., & Muros, J. (2010). Gender differences in burnout: A meta-analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77(2), 168-185.

Raquepaw, J., & Miller, R. (1989). Psychotherapist burnout: A componential analysis. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 20(1), 32-36.

Rosenberg, T., & Pace, M. (2006). Burnout among psychotherapists: Special considerations for the marriage and family therapist. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 32, 87-99.

Rupert, P., & Kent, J. (2007). Gender and work setting differences in career-sustaining behaviors and burnout among professional psychologists. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 38, 88-96.

Saxe, G., & Wolfe, J. (1999). Gender and posttraumatic stress disorder. In P. Saigh, & J. D. Bremer (Ed.). Posttrauamtic stress disorder: A comprehensive text (pp. 160-179). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Yontef, G. (2005). Gestalt therapy theory of change. In A. Woldt, & S. Toman (Eds.). Gestalt therapy, history, theory, and practice (pp. 81-100). London, UK: Sage Publications.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Roczniki Psychologiczne/Annals of Psychology

ISSN: 1507-7888   e-ISSN: 2451-4306

© Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL & Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II – Wydział Nauk Społecznych

Articles are licensed under a Creative Commons  Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)