Types day-dreamers among middle-aged women

Alin Kałużna-Wielobób


The article describes results of research, whose aim was to distinguish different types of women day-dreamers, taking into consideration the changes in day-dreaming occurring over the development from adolescence to middle age. For the purpose of defining precisely the meaning of the “day-dream” concept, the definitions of this term proposed by various authors were analyzed. To situate day-dreaming within the life span, the conception of Levinson was used. To analyze the results of research, an eclectic categorization as used. The mid-life crisis and its connections with day-dreaming were also described. One-hundred-twelve women, aged 35-50 with the secondary education and higher, participated in research. The following research methods were used: the structured interview concerning dreams and The Midlife Crisis Questionnaire (version for women by Ole  and Baranowska, 2003). Cluster analysis was used as a statistical method. Five types of day-dreamers were distinguished, taking into consideration the following criteria: the contents of youthful dreams, origin, a degree of concreteness and the feeling of fulfillment of youthful dreams, the boldness of current dreams and the faith into their fulfillment. Types of dreamers: 1) stable traditional, 2) mutable traditional – autonomic, 3) stable autonomic, 4) mutable autonomic, 5) moderate stable traditional – autonomic. The associations of the particular types of dreamers with dimensions of mid-life crisis were also analyzed and the typology was found to be related to the scores on the Negative Changes Awareness scale.


day-dreaming; mid-life crisis; middle age; women

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