Development and psychometric properties entrepreneurial self-efficacy scale

Mariola Łaguna


Self-efficacy beliefs can distinctively refer to different spheres of functioning and to different tasks, including entrepreneurial activity. The paper presents development of Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES) designed to measure perceived self-efficacy in carrying out tasks aimed at a new venture creation. Psychometric properties of the scale were evaluated on the basis of the data obtained from 315 potential entrepreneurs in a 1-year longitudinal study. Factor analysis of the ESES scores yielded three distinct narrower domains of entrepreneurial self-efficacy pertaining to: (1) gathering marketing information, (2) managing financial and legal matters, and (3) setting up business operations. The scale was shown to have high internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha = 0.96. The ESES scores were also found to correlate positively with previous entrepreneurial experience and other personality measures, such as General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Life Orientation Test (LOT-R) and Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS). People with an intention to create a new venture scored significantly higher on ESES than those without such an intention, and the level of entrepreneurial intention correlated positively with the ESES scores. All findings of the study suggest that ESES is a reliable and valid measure of entrepreneurial self-efficacy.


Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy Scale; self-efficacy; entrepreneurship; personality assessment

Full Text:

PDF (Język Polski)


Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NY: Prentice Hall.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy. The exercise of control. New York: Freeman & Co.

Bandura, A. (2000). Cultivate self-efficacy for personal and organizational effectiveness. W: E. A. Locke (red.), Handbook of principles of organization behavior (s. 120-136). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 1-26.

Bandura, A., Locke, E. A. (2003). Negative self-efficacy and goal effects revisited. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 1, 87-99.

Chen, Ch. C., Greene, P. G., Crick, A. (1998). Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entrepreneurs from managers? Journal of Business Venturing, 13, 295-316.

Dzwonkowska, I., Łaguna, M., Lachowicz-Tabaczek, K. (2006). Skala Samooceny SES M. Rosenberga (materiały nieopublikowane).

Gatewood, E. J., Shaver, K. G., Gartner, W. (1995). A longitudinal study of cognitive factors influencing start-up behaviors and success at venture creation. Journal of Business Venturing, 10, 371-391.

Gist, M. E. (1987). Self-efficacy: Implications for organizational behavior and human resource management. Academy of Management Journal, 12, 472-485.

Hornowska, E., Paluchowski, W. J. (2004). Kulturowa adaptacja testów psychologicznych. W: J. Brzeziński (red.), Metodologia badań psychologicznych. Wybór tekstów (s. 151-191). Warszawa: PWN.

Jerusalem, M., Schwarzer, R. (1992). Self-efficacy as a resource factor in stress appraisal processes. W: R. Schwarzer (red.), Self-efficacy. Thought control of action (s. 195-213). Washington: Hemisphere Publishing Corp.

Juczyński, Z. (2001). Narzędzia pomiaru w promocji i psychologii zdrowia. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych PTP.

Krueger, N. F. Jr (2000). The cognitive infrastructure of opportunity emergence. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 24, 3, 5-23.

Krueger, N., Dickson, P. (1994). How believing in ourselves increases risk taking: Self-efficacy and perceptions of opportunity and threat. Decision Science, 25, 385-400.

Krueger, N. F., Reilly, A. L., Carsrud, A. L. (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 15, 411-432.

Łaguna, M., Trzebiński, J., Zięba, M. (2005). Kwestionariusz Nadziei na Sukces. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych PTP.

Markman, G. D., Balkin, D. B., Baron, R. A. (2002). Inventors and new venture formation: The effects of general self-efficacy and regretful thinking. Entrepreneur Theory and Practice, 4, 149-165.

Markman, G. D., Baron, R. A. (2003). Person-entrepreneurship fit: Why some people are more successful as entrepreneurs than others. Human Resource Management Review, 13, 281-301.

Markman, G. D., Baron, R. A., Balkin, D. B. (2005). Are perseverance and self-efficacy costless? Assessing entrepreneurs’ regretful thinking. Journal of Organization Behavior, 26, 1, 1-19.

Oettingen, G., Mayer, D. (2002). The motivating function of thinking about the future: Expectations versus fantasies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1198-1221.

Oleś, P. K. (2003). Wprowadzenie do psychologii osobowości. Warszawa: Scholar.

Pajares, F. (2002). Overview of social cognitive theory and of self-efficacy; EDUCATION/mfp/eff.html, 11.03.2003.

Pajares, F., Hartley, J., Valiante, G. (2001). Response format in writing self-efficacy assessment: Greater discrimination increases prediction. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 33, 214-221.

Paulhus, D. (1983). Sphere-specific measure of perceived control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 1253-1265.

Paulhus, D. L. (1990). The Spheres of Control Scale: 10 yrs of research. Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 10, 1029-1036.

Pervin, L. A. (2002). Psychologia osobowości. Gdańsk: GWP.

Pervin, L. A., John, O. P. (2002). Osobowość: teoria i badania. Kraków: Wyd. UJ.

Rosenberg, M. (1989). Society and adolescent self-image. Revised edition. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.

Scheier, M. F., Carver, Ch. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4, 3, 219-247.

Scheier, M. F., Carver, Ch. S., Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): A reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 6, 1063-1078.

Shane, S., Locke, E. A., Collins, Ch. J. (2003). Entrepreneurial motivation. Human Resource Management Review, 13, 257-279.

Shapero, A. (1982). Social dimensions of entrepreneurship. W: C. A. Kent, D. L. Sexton, K. H. Vesper (red.), The encyclopedia of entrepreneurship (s. 72-90). Englewood Clifs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Shook, Ch. L., Priem, R. L., McGee, J. E. (2003). Venture creation and the entreprising individual: A review and synthesis. Journal of Management, 29, 3, 379-399.

Skaalvik, E. M., Skaalvik, S. (2004). Self-concept and self-efficacy: A test of the internal/external frame of reference model and predictions of subsequent motivation and achievement. Psychological Reports, Part 2, 95, 3, 1187-1203.

Snyder, C. R. (2002). Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 4, 249-275.

Stajkovic, A. D., Luthans, F. (1998). Self-efficacy and work-related performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 2, 240-261.

Vecchio, R. P. (2003). Entrepreneurship and leadership: Common trends and common threads. Human Resource Management Review, 13, 303-327.

Wood, R., Bandura, A. (1989). Social cognitive theory of organizational management. Academy of Management Review, 14, 3, 361-384.

Zakrzewski, J. (1987). Poczucie skuteczności a samoregulacja zachowania. Przegląd Psychologiczny, 30, 3, 661-677.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Roczniki Psychologiczne/Annals of Psychology

ISSN: 1507-7888   e-ISSN: 2451-4306

© Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL & Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II – Wydział Nauk Społecznych

Articles are licensed under a Creative Commons  Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)