Świadomość i działanie w nurcie interakcjonizmu symbolicznego

Piotr Skeris


An attempt to reconstruct the basic ideas of symbolic interactionism was undertaken especially in regard to the concept of action and the role of conscious processes in its constitution. The ideas originated in the Chicago school concentrate upon "action” (understood as communication by means of symbols) as the basic element of social process. Interactions constitute both the psychological and the social reality; by the same token the role of motivational and social structural variables in explanation of action is suspended. Functionalism is attacked for its normative approach. Similarly the motivational concepts would not account for defining of the situation (construction of meaning in the interaction process).

Action is constituted in the process of role-taking that assumes continuous adjustments to the new elements of the situation. Action is not a simple release but is always constructed anew, although it contains recurrent elements grounded in the discursive or practical consciuosnes of the agent. The social stock of interpretive procedures, typifying rules direct the process of generation of meaning. The social norms play a secondary role in this respect since they are subject to negotiation.

The analysis of language itself (as carried out in the dramaturgical school) provides insight into the symbolic dimension of interaction. The application of the language model also allows pointing out the relationships between discursive and practical rules of interpretation, that is rationalization and tacit knowledge implied in action. Some work done in the structural school suggests new approaches in accounting for social structure, a concept that requires expansion in. interaction theory.

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