Personalizm i solidaryzm jako podstawowe kierunki w społecznym nauczaniu Kościoła

Stanisław Kowalczyk


At the beginning the author states that Christianity is transcendent to various political systems and economico- social models, but it is not indifferent to the realities of socio-economical and political life. Christian ethos has a superindividual dimension and deals with social life as well. Ethico-normative indications on the part of philosophy and theology make the so-called principles of social life.

He shows first the Christian conception of the human being, his psychosomatic and at the same time social nature. Social life bears a finalistic and axiological character. The society does not exist beyond or above persons; it is in them. The adequate conceptions of man and society make the proper understanding of the principles of social life possible. Although there are many social principles in Christian philosophy, yet, according to the author, they can be reduced to two: personalism (auxiliariness) and common good (solidarity). The first lays stress on the good of the human person and his primacy towards the society; the second emphasizes the society's rights. Both these principles should be taken in a complementary manner. In Rerum novarum Leo XIII exposed the principle of the common good. In the following encyclicals the stress is laid on the principle of personalism. Gaudium et spes reads as follows: „the human person is and should be the principle, subject and goal of all social facilities” (25), though, as the author pinpoints, Paul VI more often emphasized the principle of solidarity. John Paul II is in favour of the principle of personalism. The priority of the human person is linked with the exposition of human rights and human labour over capitalism. One cannot put the principle of personalism into practice without the principle of the common good, because there is no common good without an ethos which would safeguard the good of man as the human person.

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