Pojęcie prawa w teorii i praktyce

Artur F. Utz


In order to define law one should – in the author’s opinion – take into consideration both its purely conceptual definition (nominal definition) and its real definition. From the point of view of theory there is a need to distinguish legal norms and moral norms. Law may be defined as a social norm equipped with means of coercion. However, when in practice we face the problem of violation of the law, the nominal definition of law is not sufficient. Hans Kelsen’s “pure theory of law” inevitably leads to positivism, which does not answer the question of how to cope with an extremely unjust and cruel law. The author emphasizes that irrespective of how widely recognized legal positivism should be because of its stress on the clarity of law and legal security, still there are limits; and if they are exceeded the essence of human dignity is infringed upon. Assessments of these limits may be undertaken only on the grounds of moral cognition of values. Hence it is necessary to refer to natural law.

According to the theory of natural law, human reason, by nature, is directed to recognition of the fundamental norms of human community life, albeit because of various reformation influences this natural ability de facto is not realized. The philosophers’ claim that we should live in a reasonable way assumes the natural ability in man to distinguish things that belong to human nature from what is inhuman.

Słowa kluczowe

norma prawna; norma moralna; prawo naturalne

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