Ochrona praw oskarżonego w Kościele, w szczególności w kanonicznym procesie karnosądowym

Artur Grzegorz Miziński

Abstrakt


The primary goal of the Church as a community is leading the faithful to the fulfilment of their vocation, Therefore, the salvation of souls appears to be the supreme right of the Church (salus animarum suprema lex). The Church has been aware of this mission since its beginnings. The governing function, apart from the educational and sanctifying functions, plays a significant role through enactment and execution of legal norms. Generally, the judicial power of the Church is of a pastoral character due to its very nature. Settlement of disputes should proceed in the spirit of Christian love. However, because of human nature, some disputes must be taken to court. The judicial (and penal) apparatus of the Church is founded on respect for human dignity and rights, including those of the defendant.

The need to give the defendant, who is a side in a trial, all due powers is extremely important. The current code gives priority to the defendant's right to defence, which encompasses all other rights that he or she has at a trial. Appropriate protection of the defendant's rights is necessary due to the severity of the administered or declared penalty. A fair judgment, to which the faithful always have a right, should be passed in accordance with the letter of law, but also with canonical rightness.

The norms of the canonical penal judicial trial include detailed regulations that demonstrate the considerable level of protection of the defendant's rights in this type of action. The application of these norms significantly influences the defence itself, which is full and active. In order to provide the defendant with a full protection of his rights, the legislator indicates the special rights of the defendant on trial (obligatory presence of a defence lawyer; the necessity for the defendant to accept the counsel's decision not to appeal; the defendant's right to the last word in a dispute; presumption of innocence; no obligation to confess to crime and swear an oath) and the possibility to use the discretionary powers of the judge, who can mitigate the penalty measured, or even replace it with a penance. The ecclesiastical legislator makes it permissible for the defendant to appeal the sentence which they deem unjust or invalid. All these regulations demonstrate the full range of protection provided to the indicted person who belongs to the ecclesiastical community.


Słowa kluczowe


oskarżony; proces karny; ochrona praw; prawo do obrony

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Roczniki Nauk Prawnych · ISSN 1507-7896 | eISSN 2544-5227

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