International Conditions of the People’s Republic of China’s Attitude towards the Nuclear Program of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea in the 21st Century

Łukasz Jureńczyk

Abstract


The subject of the analysis are the international conditions of the PRC’s attitude towards the nuclear program of the DPRK in the 21st century. These issues are considered in three main aspects: political, strategic-military, and economic. China wants to solve the North Korean nuclear program because it causes many negative consequences for the Middle Kingdom. It is ready for international cooperation in this field with the international community. It actively engages in multilateral talks as well as participates in the international sanctions system. External factors, including activities of the DPRK, countries of the region and the US have a significant impact on China’s attitude towards North Korea. In Beijing, various strategies for action towards Pyongyang are being considered, but in principle they exclude the use of military power. For Beijing, it is important that the evolution of the situation on the Korean Peninsula does not have a negative impact on the political, military and economic interests of China in the region and the world, and especially its position in strategic rivalry with the United States.


Keywords


People’s Republic of China; Democratic People’s Republic of Korea; North East Asia; United States; nuclear program

Full Text:

PDF (Język Polski)

References


Bayer, Jerzy, i Waldemar J. Dziak. Korea & Chiny. Tom 1. Strategia i Polityka. Warszawa: Instytut Studiów Politycznych PAN, 2006.

Bayer, Jerzy, i Waldemar J. Dziak. Korea & Chiny. Tom 2. Gospodarka i granice. Warszawa: Instytut Studiów Politycznych PAN, 2006.

Blanchard, Jean-Marc F. „A primer on China–US relations, 1949–2008: a friend in need is a friend indeed”. W: Jean-Marc F. Blanchard i Simon Shen (eds.). Conflict and Cooperation in Sino-US Relations. Change and continuity, causes and cure, 25–44. London, New York: Routledge, 2015.

Blanchard, Jean-Marc F., i Simon Shen. „Taking the temperature of China–US conflict and cooperation: an introduction”. W: Jean-Marc F. Blanchard i Simon Shen (eds.). Conflict and Cooperation in Sino-US Relations. Change and continuity, causes and cure, 1—24. London, New York: Routledge, 2015.

Buczyński, Józef. Chiny. Ewolucja polityki bezpieczeństwa. Warszawa: Akademia Obrony Narodowej, 2012.

Burdelski, Marceli. Czynniki warunkujące proces podziału i zjednoczenia Korei. Toruń: Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek, 2004.

Cathcart, Adam, i Christopher Green. „Xi’s belt: Chinese–North Korean relations”. W: Hoo T. Boon (ed.). Chinese Foreign Policy Under Xi, 130–144. London, New York: Routledge, 2017.

Chen, Yudan. „Philosophy, identity, and role theory with “Chinese characteristics”“. W: Sebastian Harnisch, Sebastian Bersick i Jörn-Carsten Gottwald (eds.). China’s International Roles, 77–94. London, New York: Routledge, 2016.

„Chinese Editor Fired Over Call to Abandon N. Korea”. Chosun Ilbo. 1 April 2013. Dostęp 25.07.2018. http://english.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2013/04/01/2013040101039.html.

Chung, Jae Ho, i Myung-Hae Choi. „Uncertain Allies or Uncomfortable Neighbors? Making Sense of China–North Korea Relations, 1949–2010”. The Pacific Review 2013, No. 26(3): 243–264.

Clover, Charles. „Chinese ships accused of breaking sanctions on North Korea”. Financial Times. 27 December 2017. Dostęp 23.07.2018. https://www.ft.com/content/21a0407e-eadd-11e7-bd17-521324c81e23.

Cossa, Ralph A. „Managing US–China relations: taking the sour with the sweet”. W: Li Mingjiang i Kalyan M. Kemburi (eds.). New Dynamics in US–China Relations Contending for the Asia- Pacific, 31–43. London, New York: Routledge, 2015.

Dura, Maksymilian. Korea Południowa kupuje rakiety Patriot PAC-3. 14 marca 2014. Dostęp 30.07.2018. http://www.defence24.pl/sily-zbrojne/korea-poludniowa-kupuje-rakiety-patriot-pac-3.

Dziak, Waldemar J. Korea: pokój czy wojna? Warszawa: Wydawnictwo ŚWIAT KSIĄŻKI, 2003.

Farnell, John, i Paul I. Crookes. The Politics of EU-China Economic Relations. An Uneasy Partnership. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.

Finch, Steve. „Unfinished bridge reveals broken state of North Korea’s alliance with China”. The Guardian, 14 November 2016. Dostęp 23.07.2018. https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2016/ nov/14/dandong-sinuiju-unfinished-bridge-reveals-broken-state-north-korea-alliance-china.

Glaser, Bonnie S. China’s Reaction to North Korea’s Nuclear Test. 6 January 2016. Center for Strategic and International Studies. Dostęp 20.07.2018. https://www.csis.org/analysis/chinas-reaction-north-koreas-nuclear-test.

Glaubitz, Joachim. „The China Threat — A European Perspective”. W: Herbert Yee i Ian Storey (eds.). The China Threat: Perceptions, Myths and Reality, 115–128. London, New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002.

Grabowski, Marcin. Wiek Pacyfiku – polityka Stanów Zjednoczonych wobec regionu Azji i Pacyfiku po 1989 r. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, 2012.

Haas, Benjamin. „Kim Jong-un’s sister invites South Korean president to Pyongyang”. The Guardian. 10 February 2018. Dostęp 25.07.2018. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/ feb/10/kim-yo-jong-meets-south-korean-president-in-seoul-as-thaw-continues.

Haliżak, Edward. Polityka i strategia Chin w kształtowaniu międzynarodowego bezpieczeństwa. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe scholar, 2008.

Haliżak, Edward. Regionalny kompleks bezpieczeństwa Azji Północno-Wschodniej. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe scholar, 2004.

HUANG, KRISTIN. „How China responded to previous North Korean nuclear tests”. South China Morning Post 4 September 2017. Dostęp 25.07.2018. http://www.scmp.com/news/china/ diplomacy-defence/article/ 2109692/ how-china-responded-previous-north-korean-nuclear-tests.

Jaewoo, Choo. „China’s challenges in accommodating both Koreas”. W: Mingjiang Li i Kalyan M. Kemburi, eds. China’s Power and Asian Security, 231-248. London, New York: Routledge, 2015.

Jakubiak, Wojciech. „Chiny rozszerzają embargo wobec Korei Północnej na węglowodory, ale tylko niektóre”. 25 września 2017. Biznes Alert. Dostęp 23.07.2018. http://biznesalert.pl/chiny-rozszerzaja-embargo-wobec-korei-polnocnej-o-weglowodory-niektore/.

Jeong-Ho, Lee. „Senior North Korean Official visit China as Pyongyang’s drive to get sanctions lifted continues”. South China Morning Post. 24 July 2018. Dostęp 23.07.2018. https://www. scmp. com/news/china/diplomacy-defence/article/2156627/senior-north-korean-official-visits- china-pyongyangs.

„Joint Statement of President Donald J. Trump of the United States of America and Chairman Kim Jong-un of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea at the Singapore Summit”. The New York Times. 12 June 2018. Dostęp 25.07.2018. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/12/world/ asia/ trump-kim-summit-statement.html.

JIJI, AFP. „North Korea’s Kim asked China’s Xi to help lift sanctions: report”. The Japan Times. 1 July 2018. Dostęp 23.07.2018. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2018/07/01/asia-pacific/ politics-diplomacy-asia-pacific/north-koreas-kim-asked-chinas-xi-help-lift-sanctions-report/#.W1byP8IyXIU.

Kikuchi, Daisuke. „Japan approves introduction of Aegis Ashore missile defense system amid North Korea threat”. The Japan Times. 19 December 2017. Dostęp 30.07.2018. https://www. japantimes.co.jp/news/2017/12/19/national/politics-diplomacy/japan-approves-introduction-aegis-ashore-missile-defense-system-amid-north-korea-threat/.

Kim, Taeho. „South Korea and a Rising China: Perceptions, Policies and Prospects”. W: Herbert Yee i Ian Storey (eds.). The China Threat: Perceptions, Myths and Reality, 166-180. London, New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002.

Kuo, Lily. „Kim Jong-un meets Xi Jinping for third time”. The Guardian. 19 June 2018. Dostęp 25.07.2018. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/jun/19/kim-jong-un-meets-xi-jinping-for-third-time.

Lanteigne, Marc. Chinese Foreign Policy. An introduction, Third Edition. London, New York: Routledge, 2016.

Liang, Xiaodon. The Six-Party Talks at a Glance. 18 July 2017. Dostęp 20.07.2018. https://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/6partytalks.

Liegl, Markus B. China’s Use of Military Force in Foreign Affairs. The Dragon Strikes. London, New York: Routledge, 2017.

Macfarquhar, Neil. „U.N. Security Council Pushes North Korea by Passing Sanctions”. The New York Times. 12 June 2009. Dostęp 23.07.2018. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/13/ world/asia/13nations.html.

Maslow, Sebastian. „China and Japan: partner, rival, and enemy?”. W: Sebastian Harnisch, Sebastian Bersick i Jörn-Carsten Gottwald (eds.). China’s International Roles, 188–206. London, New York: Routledge, 2016.

Muczyński, Rafał. Japonia modernizuje swoje baterie rakiet Patriot. 30 lipca 2016. Dostęp 30.07.2018. http://www.nowastrategia.org.pl/japonia-modernizuje-swoje-baterie-rakiet-patriot/.

Pietrewicz, Oskar. „Korea Północna w dyskursie akademicko-eksperckim w Chinach”. Stosunki Międzynarodowe – International Relations 2016 nr 1: 303-321.

Raska, Michael. „China’s strategic imprint on the Korean Peninsula: implications for the US–ROK alliance”. W: Li Mingjiang i Kalyan M. Kemburi (eds.). New Dynamics in US–China Relations Contending for the Asia- Pacific, 229–141. London, New York: Routledge, 2015.

Roberts, Guy C. US Foreign Policy and China. Bush’s first term. London, New York: Routledge, 2015.

Ross, Robert S. Chinese Security Policy. Structure, Power and Politics. London, New York: Routledge, 2009.

Ross, Robert S., Øystein Tunsjø i Zhang Tuosheng. „US–China–EU relations: towards a new world order?”. W: Robert S. Ross, Øystein Tunsjø i Zhang Tuosheng (eds.). US–China–EU Relations. Managing the new world order, 283-295. London, New York, Routledge, 2010.

Rowiński, Jan. Półwysep Koreański w polityce Chin: stosunki ChRL z KRL-D i Republiką Korei. Warszawa 2003. Mps.

Ryall, Julian. „From paper to fuel, North Koreans endure widespread shortages as sanctions take their toll”. The Telegraph. 23 February 2018. Dostęp 23.07.2018. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/ news/2018/02/23/paper-fuel-north-koreans-endure-widespread-shortages-sanctions/.

Saunders, Phillip C. „China’s rising power and the U.S. rebalance to Asia: implications for U.S.–China relations”. W: Mingjiang Li i Kalyan M. Kemburi (eds.), China’s Power and Asian Security, 85-107. London, New York: Routledge, 2015.

Security Council Imposes Fresh Sanctions on Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Unanimously Adopting Resolution 2270 (2016). 2 March 2016. United Nations. Dostęp 23.07.2018. https://www.un.org/press/en/2016/sc12267.doc.htm.

Smith, Nicola, Chris Graham i Gareth Davies. „Kim Jong-un and Moon Jae-in commit to Korean ‘peace regime’ to end nuclear conflict at historic summit”. The Telegraph. 27 April 2018. Dostęp 25.07.2018. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2018/04/27/kim-jong-un-becomes-first-north-korean-leader-cross-south-65/.

Stosunki dwustronne Korea Północna – Korea Południowa. Dostęp 20.07.2018. http://www. stosunkimiedzynarodowe.info/kraj,Korea_Polnocna,stosunki_dwustronne,Korea_Poludniowa.

Sutter, Robert G. „China and US security and economic interests: opportunities and challenges”. W: Robert S. Ross, Øystein Tunsjø i Zhang Tuosheng (eds.). US–China–EU Relations. Managing the new world order, 143–163. London, New York, Routledge, 2010.

Sutter, Robert G. „Dialogues and their implications in Sino-American relations”. W: Jean-Marc F. Blanchard i Simon Shen (eds.). Conflict and Cooperation in Sino-US Relations. Change and continuity, causes and cure, 181—203. London, New York: Routledge, 2015.

Szumski, Krzysztof. Nowa polityka zagraniczna prezydenta Chin Xi Jinpinga. 2 czerwca 2016. Dostęp 23.07.2018. https://www.swps.pl/nauka-i-badania/materialy-ccaw/2432-nowa-polityka-zagraniczna-prezydenta-chin-xi-jinpinga.

Tan, Er-Win. The US versus the North Korean Nuclear Threat. Mitigating the nuclear security dilemma. London, New York: Routledge, 2014.

Tong-Hyung, Kim. „North Korea said to be dismantling key parts of launch site”. The Washington Post. 24 July 2018. Dostęp 25.07.2018. https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/us-group-north-korea-dismantling-key-launch-site-facilities/2018/07/23/c9b1e8f2-8eee-11e8-ae59-01880eac5f1d_story.html?noredirect=on&utm_term=.8e7fa90d1a10.

„Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance Between the People’s Republic of China and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea”. Beijing. 11 July 1961. Dostęp 28.07.2018. https://www.marxists.org/subject/china/documents/china_dprk.htm .

Wadhams, Nick. UN Security Council Targets North Korea Coal Sales in Resolution. 30 November 2016. Bloomberg Dostęp 23.07.2018. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/ 2016-11-30/north-korea-coal-exports-targeted-under-draft-un-resolution.

Wilgocki, Michał. „Rada Bezpieczeństwa ONZ nałożyła nowe sankcje na Korę Północną”. Gazeta Wyborcza. 22 grudnia 2017. Dostęp 23.07.2018. http://wyborcza.pl/7,75399,22823366, rada-bezpieczenstwa-onz-nalozyla-nowe-sankcje-dla-korei-polnocnej.html.

Wong, Catherine, i Liu Zhen. „China and Russia unite against North Korean nuclear test”. South China Morning Post. 3 September 2017. Dostęp 25.07.2018. http://www.scmp.com/news/ china/diplomacy-defence/article/2109533/china-condemns-north-korean-nuclear-test.

Zhang, Yun. Sino-Japanese Relations in a Trilateral Context. Origins of Misperception. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.

Yizhou, Wang. „China–US–EU relationship in a changing era”. W: Robert S. Ross, Øystein Tunsjø, Zhang Tuosheng (eds.). US–China–EU Relations. Managing the new world order, 191–211. London, New York, Routledge, 2010.

Yuan, Jingdong. „China’s North Korea dilemma and Sino-US cooperation”. W: Jean-Marc F. Blanchard i Simon Shen (eds.). Conflict and Cooperation in Sino-US Relations. Change and continuity, causes and cure, 112–135. London, New York: Routledge, 2015.

Yuan, Jingdong. „The coming US–China military showdown in Asia: why it could happen, and how it can be prevented”. W: Li Mingjiang i Kalyan M. Kemburi (eds.). New Dynamics in US–China Relations Contending for the Asia- Pacific, 168–186. London, New York: Routledge, 2015.

Yuwen, Deng. „Zhongguo shifou yinggai fangqi chaoxian”, Liaowang Zhongguo 2013, No. 199.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18290/rh.2019.67.9-1

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Roczniki Humanistyczne

Roczniki Humanistyczne · ISSN 0035-7707 | eISSN 2544-5200 | DOI: 10.18290/rh

© The Learned Society of the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin & The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Faculty of Humanities


Articles are licensed under a Creative Commons  Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)